The Hague Academy of International Law is an institution for the study and teaching of public and private international law and related subjects. Its purpose is to encourage a thorough and impartial examination of the problems arising from international relations in the field of law. The courses deal with the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, including legislation and case law. All courses at the Academy are, in principle, published in the language in which they were delivered in the Collected Courses at The Hague Academy of International Law. This volume contains: non-governmental organizations and the implementation of international law by H.E.R. Ranjeva, judge at the International Court of Justice; private international law in China from a comparative perspective by D. XU, Professor at the East China University of Politics and Law, Shanghai; and forty years of activity of the European Court of Human Rights (27-31 July) by F. Matscher, Professor at the University of Salzburg.